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Information Technology : Fields of Work

The computer industry has two main sectors:


This term covers the physical elements of a computer system. The hardware sector is concerned with their design, development, assembly, manufacture and maintenance. Hardware design and development is the function of engineers and computers scientist, Manufacture involves production and assembly of component, some of which might be locally sourced while others are imported.


Software is a set of programmed instructions that enable a computer to perform specified functions. The versatility of the task undertaken by the computer depends on its sophistication and the quality and complexity of the software provided. This sector is involved in designing programs for various purposes and is further divided into :

Systems Software, i.e. programs that control the computer's mode of operation. Systems software is usually developed by vendors and R&Institutes.

Applications Software covers user-friendly programs specially devised to comply with a customerís specific needs. Typically this means developing programs that directly facilitate the day-to-day activities of an organization.

Application Packages are general usage programs that meet requirements common to large numbers of people. The are developed for stock and can be bought off the shelf. As custom-made programs are expensive and take time to develop, software packages are becoming increasingly popular. Microcomputer are largely responsible for the growth of packages of software solution to business problems and have given rise to may support jobs within the industry.

Software development is continuous process that requires addition and modifications in accordance with the userís changing needs. The scope of this sector includes training in IT areas, contract services at customer locations, turn key development software products and processing services.

The Indian computer industry has found outlets for its products at home as well as abroad. In 1989-90 hardware and software exports together totaled Rest 400 crore. Our current export growth rate is 63 per cent. With present targets for hardware and software set at Rest 3500 crore, 185000 computer professionals are required for software development alone-an encouraging thought considering that Indian software experts are rated among the best in the world.




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