Information Technology : The Work
Work in the information industry encompasses a range of specialist jobs. Some are performed in isolation, while other require the inputs of aninter-disciplinary team. Computer professionals, like all others, acquire their expertise through appropriate training and hands-on experience. The delineations between different specializations are changing constantly as machines become over more sophisticated demanding new skills or different combinations of existing ones.
Computers are highly sensitive, and are installed in dust free air-conditioned rooms, works could either be in these surroundings, handling the machines and their components or in the field interacting with end users or other professional. The atmosphere is congenial and hours are usually fixed though at some levels, one might be required to work in shifts or on holidays.
Major Tasks Performed
Work in the computer industry is varied. Its scope may be:
Function of this area include:
Research And Development, usually carried out in manufacturing and R&D institutes by specialist with engineering of M.Sc. electronics degrees. Main activities are the improvement and adaptation of established processes and products of the creation of new ones. The works is essentially laboratory based. Most engineering research is applied and aims at maximizing sales and profits. R&D investigates the better-selling products and comes up with suggestions. Research is very much a team effort.
In hardware, it includes chip and circuit design, computer architecture and peripheral integration. In software R&D existing operation are developed by updating improving and refining them, or new programs are evolved for general use in the future.
Manufacture requires personnel with a diploma in electronics or a BE, B.Tech or M.Tech.Degree work is with a manufacturing company or vendor.
In hardware work involves production and assembly of components for computer systems and peripherals. Hardware manufacture is an established industry with fast-moving research input.
Software work involves systems programming which make the computer work. it combines the application of computer science and telecommunication principles with creativity, high technology expertise and analytical reasoning A technical/scientific background is essential for this work which brings together a number of specialist from various disciplines. Professional interaction is almost entirely with other highly qualified experts and there is little contact with non-computer people. MAINTENANCE is a job for which engineers are preferred and it could be undertaken by the manufacturing company or other organizations. It could take the form of:
Preventive maintenance to ensure the smooth functioning of machines. Breakdown maintenance, involving the detection and rectifying of faults.
Third Party maintenance which is provided for a fee by company other than the manufacturer.
This area includes:
Software Development, which is carried out in the following stages:
Analysis involves the investigation of a system- or lack of one- existing in an organization and recommendation for its computerization. The process takes several months. In this time each department's operations are observed procedures and information flows are documented and interaction among departments is studied. These findings are compiled in a report based on which conclusions are drawn as to whether, and to what extent, computerization of the system is possible. Changes needed in current procedures are suggested, and decisions taken on the appropriate hardware and software to be employed.
Besides specialized technical knowledge and an analytical mind, well developed communication skills are vital for this work.
Design involves the breaking up of a recommended system in to a logical sequence of structured procedures, and translating them in to the appropriate computer language This requires technical skill.
Construction is the physical programming of a computer. This requires the entry of step-by-step sequences of instructions, directly into the computer terminal, to enable the machine to perform specified tasks. Special training is needed for this work as programs must be user friendly, well documented and flexible enough to be adaptable to a particulars user's differing needs. A knowledge of computer languages and typing abilities are also necessary for this job. Testing of the entire system is carried out before installation. This is done by manually working out results and verifying them with computerized outputs. Implementation includes installation of the system in the user organization user orientation and training in the process, and assistance in resolving initial problems of operation.
Software development is usually done by software houses or consultancy firms. It requires different levels of skills and training for each stages of the process. DATABASE ADMINISTRATION implies management and maintenance of corporate date, as well as control of its access. This task required considerable experience of database systems and business need and is a specialist area. Database administration in generally a separate department in organization with large information resources.
Data Entry requires the feeding of information into a computer as per the design of the program typing skills and a knowledge of computer languages are essential for the task.
The scope of this area covers:
Sales And Marketing, which, in this technologically advanced and highly competitive industry, is a specialist task. Effective marketing of computers requires the support of a through study of products and their competition, as well as trends current in the industry. Salespeople usually specialize in systems for special markets, such as those cater into commercial, scientific or educational needs. This field operates on incentives, and hard work brings frequent promotions and monetary benefits. Knowing-depth computer knowledge is required for the work, but a one-year diploma course in hardware maintenance, or an engineering diploma, would be an advantage.
Sales and marketing jobs are either with computer manufacturers, or with computer firms that stock products of more than one company.
Support Services vary in content, and can range from assisting a customer with selecting the right computer, suggesting additional and more efficient, application of existing systems, and end-user training, to making periodic visits on behalf of manufacturing of software houses to see that all goes well and to keep the customer informed on new equipment and software. This work requires an ability to communicate and establish good inter personal relations at all levels, as well as technical expertise to keep up with technological developments.
Data Centre are an aspect of computer-related services, which provide time-sharing facilities and equipment rentals.
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