Babesiosis is an intraerythrocytic parasitic infection caused by protozoa of the genus Babesia and transmitted through the bite of the Ixodes tick, the same vector responsible for transmission of Lyme disease.The Ixodid ticks ingest Babesia during feeding from the host, multiply the protozoa in their gut wall, and concentrate it in their salivary glands. Babesiosis is a zoonotic disease maintained by the interaction of tick vectors, transport hosts, and animal reservoirs. The primary vectors of the parasite are ticks of the genus Ixodes. In the United States, babesiosis is usually an asymptomatic infection in healthy individuals. Several groups of patients become symptomatic, and, within these subpopulations, significant morbidity and mortality occur. The disease most severely affects patients who are elderly, immunocompromised, or asplenic. Among those symptomatically infected, the mortality rate is 10% in the United States and 50% in Europe.
Archive for July, 2008
Normally amebiasis can be treated by antimicrobial medication. In severe cases like amebic liver abscess hospitalization and surgery is recommended. In Asymptomatic intestinal infection treatment with metronidazol iodoquinol, paromomycin, or diloxanide furoate is required. More severe cases of amebic dysentery are treated by replacing lost fluid and blood. For hepatic abscess patient may use metronidazole and tinidazole. Intravenous therapy may be useful when the patient is vomiting and medications can’t be tolerated by mouth. Oral antiparasitic medication is also useful treatment for amebiasis. There are two more drugs for Amebiasis called Luminal amebicides and Tissue amebicides.
In most of the cases the disease does not show any symptoms. However, in very few cases it invades the ling of the large intestine and shows symptoms like
- Loss of appetite
- Loose or watery stools
- Abdominal tenderness or mild pain
- Stomach cramps
- Intestinal gas
Amebiasis causes when person infected with an amoeba called Entamoeba histolytica. It is transmitted when a person eats food or drinks water contaminated by Entamoeba histolytica. It can be spread from infected person to other by stool. Amebiasis occurs because of crowded living condition. In the case of amebiasis infection can also spread through the blood to the liver,brain or other organs.
Amebiasis is an intestinal illness caused by the amoeba Entamoeba histolytica. In many cases, the parasite lives in a person’s large intestine without showing any symptoms. But sometimes, it invades the lining of the large intestine, causing diarrhea, stomach pains, cramping, nausea, loss of appetite, or fever. In rare cases, it can spread into other organs such as the liver, lungs, and brain. Amoebiasis is usually transmitted by contamination of drinking water and foods with feces, but it can also be transmitted indirectly through contact with dirty hands or objects as well as by anal-oral contact. The illness is very prevalent in parts of the developing world, including Africa, Latin America, India, and Southeast Asia.
Treatment for amblyopia begins as soon after diagnosis as possible. Early treatment usually can reverse the condition. Treatment should begin before a child’s vision has fully developed (around age 9 or 10). The younger the child is when treatment begins, the better his or her chances are for developing good vision. Amblyopia can be hard to correct after age 9. But studies suggest that treatment beyond this age can still correct amblyopia. Glasses or contact lenses improve some conditions, such as unequal vision. Other conditions, such as cataracts and some forms of strabismus, may require surgery.
A child born with a cataract or any defect that keeps light out of the eye needs immediate treatment because amblyopia may become permanent within a few months. Amblyopia that results from misaligned eyes (strabismus) or unequal vision in the eyes (anisometropia) usually develops more slowly. Treatment corrects amblyopia by training the brain to use visual signals from the eye with weaker vision, building a stronger connection between the brain and the weak eye, and allowing vision to develop normally in that eye.There are several ways to force the weak eye to get stronger. Methods include wearing an eye patch (also called occlusion) and using eyedrops or glasses (also called penalization). The most common type of penalization treatment uses eyedrops (usually atropine) to blur the vision in the stronger eye and force the brain to use the weaker eye. Eyeglasses with a blurry lens over the stronger eye force the brain to use the weaker eye.