Down syndrome is a genetic disorder and the most common cause of cognitive impairment. Down syndrome is a genetic disorder caused by the presence of an extra chromosome 21. Chromosomes contain the genes that carry all the information necessary to properly develop and maintain our bodies. All individuals with Down syndrome have mild to moderate learning disabilities, distinctive facial features, and low muscle tone (hypotonia) in early infancy. In 1866, Doctor John Langdon Down first described Down syndrome as a disorder, but he misunderstood how Down syndrome arises. The cause of Down syndrome was discovered rather recently in 1959.
Other Disease Occurence
People suffering from Down syndrome are prone to get infected by medical complications and problem such as:
Leukemia and other cancers
Immune system problems
Bone, muscle, nerve, or joint problems
Congenital heart diseaseSeizure disorders
Treatment For Down Syndrome
Unfortunately, there is no specific treatment for Down syndrome. However, treatment is available for the health problems that the person might have. The doctor may also schedule certain screening tests to look for problems before symptoms occur. This is important, given the increased risk of vision and hearing problems, infections, and cancer in people with Down syndrome. Special education and training is offered in most communities for mentally handicapped children. Thyroid hormone for hypothyroidism is needed to prevent intellectual deterioration and improve the individual’s overall function, academic achievement, and vocational abilities.
Subacute bacterial endocarditis prophylaxis is needed in susceptible children with cardiac disease when they undergo dental work or other invasive procedures.
Digitalis and diuretics are usually required for cardiac management.
Prompt treatment of respiratory tract infections and otitis media is necessary.