Archive for November, 2010

Treatment For Down Syndrome

Thursday, November 18th, 2010

Down syndrome is a genetic disorder and the most common cause of cognitive impairment. Down syndrome is a genetic disorder caused by the presence of an extra chromosome 21. Chromosomes contain the genes that carry all the information necessary to properly develop and maintain our bodies. All individuals with Down syndrome have mild to moderate learning disabilities, distinctive facial features, and low muscle tone (hypotonia) in early infancy. In 1866, Doctor John Langdon Down first described Down syndrome as a disorder, but he misunderstood how Down syndrome arises. The cause of Down syndrome was discovered rather recently in 1959.

Other Disease Occurence

People suffering from Down syndrome are prone to get infected by medical complications and problem such as:

Leukemia and other cancers
Immune system problems
Thyroid problems
Bone, muscle, nerve, or joint problems
Hearing problems
Eye problems
Congenital heart diseaseSeizure disorders
Developmental delay
Mental retardation
Premature aging
Alzheimer’s disease.

Treatment For Down Syndrome

Unfortunately, there is no specific treatment for Down syndrome. However, treatment is available for the health problems that the person might have. The doctor may also schedule certain screening tests to look for problems before symptoms occur. This is important, given the increased risk of vision and hearing problems, infections, and cancer in people with Down syndrome. Special education and training is offered in most communities for mentally handicapped children. Thyroid hormone for hypothyroidism is needed to prevent intellectual deterioration and improve the individual’s overall function, academic achievement, and vocational abilities.
Subacute bacterial endocarditis prophylaxis is needed in susceptible children with cardiac disease when they undergo dental work or other invasive procedures.

Digitalis and diuretics are usually required for cardiac management.

Prompt treatment of respiratory tract infections and otitis media is necessary.

Diagnosis For Alexander Disease

Tuesday, November 16th, 2010

In Alexander disease, the destruction of white matter in the brain is accompanied by the formation of fibrous protein deposits called Rosenthal fibers. It is caused by mutations in the gene for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). The majority of cases are sporadic (not inherited), but there are families in which more than one child will have the disorder. Alexander disease primarily affects males and usually begins at about 6 months of age. It is one of a group of disorders known as the leukodystrophies, diseases that result from imperfect growth or development of the myelin sheath, the fatty covering that acts as an insulator around nerve fibers in the brain. Myelin, which lends its color to the “white matter” of the brain, is a complex substance made up of at least ten different chemicals. Each of the leukodystrophies affects one (and only one) of these substances.

Symptoms

Mental retardation and spastic quadriparesis.
As the disease progresses, it becomes increasingly difficult to feed and manage the child.
Brain of the child grows abnormally large (a condition known as megalencephaly) as the brain and nervous system development of the system becomes very slow leading to brain cortex and spinal cord dysfunction.
Child suffering from this disorder experiences difficulty in walking, speech and also progressive mental deterioration.
A liquid gets deposited in the area between brain and skull which causes pressure on the brain (also known as hydrocephaly).
Loss of consciousness

Treatment

The doctor may recommend blood and other tests to confirm the disease at the initial stage. Leukodystrophies, radiologic study and MRI scan are few tests which also can help reveal the existence of this disorder.

Unfortunately, this disorder is incurable and till recent time, there was no alternative treatment to lessen the effects of the disease. However, research in past few years has helped in many issues as the gene related to this disorder has been identified, which makes it possible to make partners aware of situation. The only treatment options available are symptom specific and patient needs to be looked after to make his/her life easier.

Cure For Celiac Disease

Friday, November 12th, 2010

In celiac disease, there is an immunological (allergic) reaction within the inner lining of the small intestine to proteins (gluten) that are present in wheat, rye, barley and, to a lesser extent, in oats. Other names for celiac disease include sprue, nontropical sprue, gluten enteropathy, and adult celiac disease. (Tropical sprue is another disease of the small intestine that occurs in tropical climates. The immunological reaction causes inflammation that destroys the lining of the small intestine. This reduces the absorption of dietary nutrients and can lead to symptoms and signs of nutritional, vitamin, and mineral deficiencies. There is evidence that this reaction is partially genetic and inherited. Thus, approximately 10% of first-degree relatives (parents, siblings or children) of individuals with celiac disease also will have celiac disease. In addition, in approximately 30% of fraternal twins and 70% of identical twins, both twins will have celiac disease.

Symptoms

Symptoms may occur in the digestive system, or in other parts of the body. One person might have diarrhea and abdominal pain, while another person may be irritable or depressed. Irritability is one of the most common symptoms in children. Some people have no symptoms.

Treatment

Consult dietitians and national celiac disease societies for lists of gluten free foods. Read the food and product labels before buying or consuming any product. This is necessary because a manufacturer may change a product’s ingredients at any time. Avoid milk and other dairy products that contain lactose. Untreated patients with celiac disease often are lactose intolerant. With successful treatment, dairy products can be reintroduced slowly into the diet later.

Avoid all foods made from wheat, rye, and barley. Examples are breads, cereals, pasta, crackers, cakes, pies, cookies, and gravies. 3. Examples of foods that may contain gluten, to name only a few, include canned soups, salad dressings,ice cream,candy bars,
instant coffee, luncheon meats, ketchup, mustard, processed and canned meats, yogurt, sausages and pasta.

Treatment For Typhoid Fever

Monday, November 8th, 2010

Typhoid Fever
Typhoid fever is caused by the transmission of bacterium Salmonella enterica enterica carried by food or water contaminated with the feces of an infected person. The bacteria then enter through the intestinal wall and are phagocytosed by macrophages. he impact of this disease falls sharply with the application of modern sanitation techniques. Here it mixes in the bloodstream and multiplies until it is finally eliminated through egestion. However the multiplied bacteria that are retained in the bloodstream cause the condition of typhoid. Treatment should not be delayed for confirmatory tests since prompt treatment drastically reduces the risk of complications and fatalities. Antibiotic therapy should be narrowed once more information is available.

Symptoms For Typhoid Fever
People with typhoid fever usually have a sustained fever as high as 103 F-104 F (39 C-40 C).

The disease is characterised by constant aches and pains.

Due to loss of appetite, the person’s diet is very much restricted. Hence the person loses weight.

The person loses sleep and feels feverish all through the night.

Typhoid people are very weak and fatigued as long as they are affected by the disease.

Treatment For Typhoid

The common used drugs to treat Typhoid are antibiotics, like ampicillin, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, Amoxicillin and ciprofloxacin.Typhoid fever in most cases is not dangerous.

The treatment varies with resistance Where resistance is uncommon, the treatment of choice is a fluoroquinolone such as ciprofloxacin otherwise, a third-generation cephalosporin such as ceftriaxone or cefotaxime is the first choice. Cefixime is a suitable oral alternative

How To Cure Dengue

Wednesday, November 3rd, 2010

Dengue

Dengue is also known as breakbone fever, since it can be extremely painful. Unlike malaria, dengue is just as prevalent in the urban districts of its range as in rural areas. Each serotype is sufficiently different that there is no cross-protection and epidemics caused by multiple serotypes (hyperendemicity) can occur. Dengue is transmitted to humans by the Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti or more rarely the Aedes albopictus mosquito. The mosquito flourishes during rainy seasons but can breed in water-filled flower pots, plastic bags, and cans year-round. One mosquito bite can inflict the disease.

Symptoms

Patients are prone to dehydration hence they should drink plenty of fluids.

Fever, bladder problem, constant headaches, severe dizziness and loss of appetite.

Hemorrhagic tendency (positive tourniquet test, spontaneous bruising, bleeding from mucosa, gingiva, injection sites, etc; vomiting blood or bloody diarrhea)

Treatment

There is no definite treatment for or vaccine to prevent dengue fever. Most people who get dengue fever will recover in about 2 weeks to a month by getting plenty of rest. Close monitoring of vital signs in critical period (between day 2 to day 7 of fever) is vital. Increased oral fluid intake is recommended to prevent dehydration. Aspirin and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs should be avoided as these drugs may worsen the bleeding tendency associated with some of these infections. Supplementation with intravenous fluids may be necessary to prevent dehydration and significant concentration of the blood if the patient is unable to maintain oral intake. Fever is treated by anti-pyretics, like paracetamol.

Pain in the bone should be treated by analgesics or pain killing tablets.

In case of Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever or Dengue Shock Syndrome hospitalization is a must. The mortality rate in the absence of hospitalization can be as high as 50%. With proper treatment the mortality comes down to 3%. More supportive treatment, like intravenous fluid replacement is required to prevent shock in these patients.