Treatment Of Zygomycosis

Zygomycosis is often caused by common fungi which can be found in soil and decaying vegetation. While most individuals are exposed to the fungi on a regular basis those with immune disorders are more prone to an infection. As such, it usually infects those who are immunocompromised. It is caused by fungus from the orders Mucorales and Entomophthorales which are normally found in the soil and in decaying plant matter. The infection differs from mucormycosis which only involves the order Mucorales. Transmission is usually through the inhalation of spores. It is generally harmless to healthy individuals but can cause infection in patients who are immunocompromised or who have a serious chronic illness such as uncontrolled diabetes. The condition may affect the gastrointestinal tract or the skin. It usually begins in the nose and paranasal sinuses and is one of the most rapidly spreading fungal infections in humans.

Most persons who develop zygomycosis are immunocompromised, although 15-20% of patients have no evidence of any underlying condition at the time of the diagnosis. he most common risk factors include the following:
Stem cell transplantation
Poorly controlled diabetes mellitus, either type 1 or type 2
Hematologic malignancy (eg, leukemias, lymphomas)

Treatment Of Zygomycosis

Take aggressive surgical measures to débride affected tissue. Without early and aggressive therapy, zygomycosis is almost always fatal. In addition, lipid preparations cause milder renal insufficiency typically associated with amphotericin B. Although still investigational, combination therapy with lipid preparations of amphotericin B and G-CSF have been successful in several studies.
Take correct amount of hyperglycemia and ketoacidosis to improve outcome.
Take correct amount neutropenia with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) or granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) to improve outcome.
Institute early and appropriate antifungal administration.
If possible, discontinue steroids or deferoxamine.



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