How To Treat Tuberculosis

Tuberculosis usually involves the lungs, but other organs of the body can also be involved. It was first isolated in 1882 by a German physician named Robert Koch who received the Nobel Prize for this discovery. it is a contagious disease. Like the common cold, it spreads through the air. Only people who are sick with TB in their lungs are infectious. When infectious people cough, sneeze, talk or spit, they propel TB germs, known as bacilli, into the air.
A person needs only to inhale a small number of these to be infected.Each year nearly 2 million people in India develop TB, of which around 0.87 million are infectious cases. It is estimated that annually around 330,000 Indians die due to TB. TB is caused by a germ that is transmitted from person to person by airborne droplets. Usually this infection is passed on as a result of very close contact, so family members of an infected person are endangered if the person continues to live in the same household and has not undergone proper treatment.
Symptoms

The first symptoms of an active case of TB may be so commonplace that they are often dismissed as the effects of a cold or flu. The individual may get tired easily, feel slightly feverish or cough frequently. It usually goes away by itself, but about in about half the cases, it will return.
For people who have the disease, TB can cause lung or pleural (the lining of the lung) disease or it may spread through the body via the blood.
Treatment

For a proper diagnosis, therefore, a doctor will rely on symptoms and other physical signs; a person’s history of exposure to TB and x-rays that may show evidence of TB infection (usually in the form of lesions or cavities in the lungs). TB bacilli grown in cultures of sputum or other specimens provide a positive diagnosis.
Only people who are sick with TB in their lungs are infectious. When infectious people cough, sneeze, talk or spit, they propel TB germs, known as bacilli, into the air. A person needs only to inhale a small number of these to be infected.
Left untreated, each person with active TB disease will infect on average between 10 and 15 people every year. But people infected with TB bacilli will not necessarily become sick with the disease. The immune system “walls off” the TB bacilli which, protected by a thick waxy coat, can lie dormant for years.


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