Common Cold – Diseases and Conditions

Although more than 100 viruses can cause a common cold, the rhinovirus is the most common culprit, and it’s highly contagious.

A cold virus enters your body through your mouth, eyes or nose. The virus can spread through droplets in the air when someone who is sick coughs, sneezes or talks. But it also spreads by hand-to-hand contact with someone who has a cold or by sharing contaminated objects, such as utensils, towels, toys or telephones. If you touch your eyes, nose or mouth after such contact or exposure, you’re likely to catch a cold.

Cold viruses are almost always present in the environment. But the following factors can increase your chances of getting a cold:

  • Age. Infants and preschool children are especially susceptible to common colds because they haven’t yet developed resistance to most of the viruses that cause them. But an immature immune system isn’t the only thing that makes kids vulnerable. They also tend to spend lots of time with other children and frequently aren’t careful about washing their hands and covering their mouths and noses when they cough and sneeze. Colds in newborns can be problematic if they interfere with nursing or breathing through the nose.
  • Immunity. As you age, you develop immunity to many of the viruses that cause common colds. You’ll have colds less frequently than you did as a child. However, you can still come down with a cold when you are exposed to cold viruses or have a weakened immune system. All of these factors increase your risk of a cold.
  • Time of year. Both children and adults are more susceptible to colds in fall and winter. That’s because children are in school and most people spend a lot of time indoors. In warmer climates where cold weather doesn’t keep people inside, colds are more frequent in the rainy season,
  • Acute ear infection (otitis media). Ear infection occurs when bacteria or viruses infiltrate the space behind the eardrum. It’s a frequent complication of common colds in children. Typical signs and symptoms include earaches and, in some cases, a green or yellow discharge from the nose or the return of a fever following a common cold. Children who are too young to verbalize their distress may simply cry or sleep restlessly. Ear pulling is not a reliable sign.
  • Wheezing. A cold can trigger wheezing in children with asthma.
  • Sinusitis. In adults or children, a common cold that doesn’t resolve may lead to sinusitis — inflammation and infection of the sinuses.
  • Other secondary infections. These include strep throat (streptococcal pharyngitis), pneumonia, and croup or bronchiolitis in children. These infections need to be treated by a doctor.


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