Archive for the ‘Nutrition’ Category

Cholera – An Infectious Disease

Saturday, January 31st, 2015


Cholera is an infectious disease that causes severe watery diarrhea, which can lead to dehydration and even death if untreated. It is caused by eating food or drinking water contaminated with a bacterium called Vibrio cholerae.

The disease is most common in places with poor sanitation, crowding, war, and famine. Common locations include parts of Africa, south Asia, and Latin America. If you are traveling to one of those areas, knowing the following cholera facts can help protect you and your family.

Cholera Causes

Vibrio cholerae, the bacterium that causes cholera, is usually found in food or water contaminated by feces from a person with the infection. Common sources include:

  • Municipal water supplies
  • Ice made from municipal water
  • Foods and drinks sold by street vendors
  • Vegetables grown with water containing human wastes
  • Raw or undercooked fish and seafood caught in waters polluted with sewage

When a person consumes the contaminated food or water, the bacteria release a toxin in the intestines that produces severe diarrhea.

It is not likely you will catch cholera just from casual contact with an infected person.

Cholera Symptoms

Symptoms of cholera can begin as soon as a few hours or as long as five days after infection. Often, symptoms are mild. But sometimes they are very serious. About one in 20 people infected have severe watery diarrhea accompanied by vomiting, which can quickly lead to dehydration. Although many infected people may have minimal or no symptoms, they can still contribute to spread of the infection.

Signs and symptoms of dehydration include:

  • Rapid heart rate
  • Loss of skin elasticity (the ability to return to original position quickly if pinched)
  • Dry mucous membranes, including the inside of the mouth, throat, nose, and eyelids
  • Low blood pressure
  • Thirst
  • Muscle cramps

If not treated, dehydration can lead to shock and death in a matter of hours.

Cholera Treatment and Prevention

Although there is a vaccine against cholera, the CDC and World Health Organization don’t normally recommend it, because it may not protect up to half of the people who receive it and it lasts only a few months. However, you can protect yourself and your family by using only water that has been boiled, water that has been chemically disinfected, or bottled water. Be sure to use the bottled, boiled, or chemically disinfected water for the following purposes:

  • Drinking
  • Preparing food or drinks
  • Making ice
  • Brushing your teeth
  • Washing your face and hands
  • Washing dishes and utensils that you use to eat or prepare food
  • Washing fruits and vegetables

To disinfect your own water, boil it for one minute (or 3 minutes at higher elevations) or filter it and use a commercial chemical disinfectant. You should also avoid raw foods, including the following:

  • Unpeeled fruits and vegetables
  • Unpasteurized milk and milk products
  • Raw or undercooked meat or shellfish
  • Fish caught in tropical reefs, which may be contaminated

If you develop severe, watery diarrhea and vomiting — particularly after eating raw shellfish or traveling to a country where cholera is epidemic -seek medical help immediately. Cholera is highly treatable, but because dehydration can happen quickly, it’s important to get cholera treatment right away.

Hydration is the mainstay of treatment for cholera. Depending on how severe the diarrhea is, treatment will consist of oral or intravenous solutions to replace lost fluids. Antibiotics, which kill the bacteria, are not part of emergency treatment for mild cases.  But they can reduce the duration of diarrhea by half and also reduce the excretion of the bacteria, thus helping to prevent the spread of the disease.

Common home remedies for cholera

Monday, December 9th, 2013

A person will develop this disease symptoms that range from mild to severe. This is one of the life threatening diseases that require early remedies before it goes too late. There are several symptoms of cholera. Like – watery diarrhea with a fishy smell, stomach ache, excessive thirst, dry mucous membranes and so forth. This disease is caused by a comma shaped bacteria, named vibrio Cholerae. This disease can be cause by food and or drink. This disease generally entails antibiotics through medical practitioner.
There are also some home remedies available to prevent cholera. If this disease arises one can take lemon, which is very popular in reducing the levels of cholera bacilli in the intestines and digestive system. Lemon drink or juice can help to prevent it.
Onions is one of the great thing by which one can get relief from this disease. Onions and black pepper treat cholera to treat restlessness and thirst.
Do mix cucumber and coconut water juice to relieve from excessive dehydration and thirst.
You can prevent cholera by doing some simple things at home, many of the developing and developed countries prevented cholera by doing some simple things. You need to remember that cholera is one of the disease which comes directly from hygiene in generally. If you wash your hands frequently, drinks only clean water and or filtered water, eat clean and fresh vegetable, fruits and food, clean your water tanks, kitchen, and boiling pots and necessary things. Then it is sure almost you can prevent this disease. Though disease can be affected anytime, if this happens then our friendly advice to consult a medical practitioner first.

Eat Protein-Rich Foods

Wednesday, August 23rd, 2006

ProteinBody proteins are constantly being made and used during your lifetime to maintain cell and organ functions. Adequate protein intake and protein reserves are important for older adults, especially during periods of emotional and physical stresses. Protein helps to prevent muscle loss. Eat protein-rich foods such as meats, fish, dried beans and peas, or tofu. Also, these foods are good sources of iron and zinc.

As you age, blood levels of vitamin B-12 usually decrease. Vitamin B-12 is needed to make red blood cells and maintain the central nervous system. Animal foods are good sources of vitamin B-12.

Eat Calcium-Rich Foods

Wednesday, August 23rd, 2006

Calcium and Vitamin D are essential to maintain strong bones and teeth. After age 50, more calcium or 1,200 milligrams are needed to prevent a disease called osteoporosis. As you age, minerals in your bones are lost and bones may get thinner. Protect your bones by choosing calcium-rich foods, such as milk, cheese, yogurt, greens, broccoli, sardines, canned salmon with bones, dried beans and peas, tofu, and calcium-fortified foods. If you have problems digesting milk,

# Drink lactose reduced milk.
# Eat yogurt or cheese, where the lactose has been broken down, Eat Calcium-Rich Foods
# Drink a smaller amount of milk or buttermilk at a time,
# Eat other calcium-rich foods that are not milk-based.

Vitamin D helps the absorption of calcium. It is found in fluid milk, dried milk products, and fortified cereals. Your body can make its own Vitamin D when your skin is exposed to the sunshine. Several times a week try to take a walk or sit in the sun for 20-30 minutes. This is especially important in the winter when there is less sunlight. Remember to use sunscreen

Why Vitamin A, B, E

Wednesday, August 23rd, 2006

Vitamin A – Prevents night blindness, promotes healthy skin, and fights infections.

Vitamin C - Maintains healthy gums, assists in healing wounds, and helps the body use iron.

Vitamin E – Protects your body against free radical damage to cells.

The Importance Of Nutrition

Wednesday, August 23rd, 2006

The importance of good nutrition is nothing new. Back in 400 B.C., Hippocrates said, “Let food be your medicine and medicine be your food.” Today, good nutrition is more important than ever. At least four of the 10 leading causes of death in the U.S.–heart disease, cancer, stroke and diabetes–are directly related to way we eat; diet is also implicated in scores of other conditions. But while the wrong diet can be deadly, eating right is among the cornerstones of health.

Of course, food alone isn’t the key to a longer and healthier life. Good nutrition should be part of an overall healthy lifestyle, which also includes regular exercise, not smoking or drinking alcohol excessively, stress management and limiting exposure to environmental hazards. And no matter how well you eat, your genes play a big part in your risk for certain health problems. But don’t underestimate the influence of how and what you eat.

For example, atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries) can begin in early childhood, but the process can be halted–even reversed–if you make healthy changes in your diet and lifestyle. The gradual bone thinning that results in osteoporosis may be slowed if you consume enough calcium, maintain adequate Vitamin D levels and participate in weight-bearing exercise. You may be genetically predisposed to diabetes, but keep your weight within a healthy range through diet and exercise and the disease may never strike you.

The keys to good nutrition are balance, variety and moderation. To stay healthy, your body needs the right balance of carbohydrates, fats, and protein –the three main components of nutrition.

You also need vitamins, minerals and other substances from many different foods, and while some foods are better than others, no single food or food group has it all–so eating a variety of different foods is essential.

Moderation means eating neither too much nor too little of any food or nutrient. Too much food can result in excess weight and even too much of certain nutrients, while eating too little can lead to numerous nutrient deficiencies and low body mass.


Vitamin D & Dietary sources of Vitamin D

Wednesday, August 23rd, 2006

VitaminVitamin D: A steroid vitamin, which promotes absorption and metabolism of calcium and phosphorus. Under normal conditions of sunlight exposure, no dietary supplementation is necessary because sunlight promotes adequate vitamin D synthesis in the skin. Deficiency can lead to osteomalcia in adults and bone deformity (rickets) in children. Vitamin D is used along with calcium as a supplement in the treatment of the “bone thinning” disorders, osteoporosis.

Dietary sources of Vitamin D
Fish liver oils, e.g.: cod liver oil
Fatty fish, (herring, mackerel, salmon, sardines, pilchards, tuna)
Fortified margarine
Infant milk formulas
Eggs, liver

Vitamin C & Dietary sources of Vitamin C

Wednesday, August 23rd, 2006

Vitamin C: Ascorbic acid, important in the synthesis of collagen, the framework protein for tissues of the body, such as those that help to make up the skin. Deficiency leads to scurvy, characterized by fragile capillaries, poor wound healing, and bone deformity in children.

Dietary sources of Vitamin C
Black currents, guavas
Green peppers, broccoli, cauliflower (raw)
Oranges and other citrus fruits
Brussels, sprouts, cabbage
Liver is the only animal food that contains it.

Vitamin A

Wednesday, August 23rd, 2006

Vitamin A: Retinol. Carotene compounds responsible for transmitting light sensation in the retina of the eye. Deficiency leads to night blindness.
Dietary Sources of Retinol
Liver (richest natural source)
Egg yolk
Fish and Liver oils
(Retinol or carotene is added to margarine in Britain and other countries.)


Wednesday, August 23rd, 2006

Vitamins are organic substances in food, which are required in small amounts but cannot be synthesized in adequate quantities by the body and therefore have to be provided from the environment.

Contrary to popular belief, deficiencies of vitamins still occur in affluent countries, for example deficiencies of folate, vitamin B and Vitamin D and C.

These are particularly common in people on fad diets, veganand alcoholics.

Deficiency diseases are more prevalent in developing countries. For example, Vitamin A deficiency is a common cause of blindness in the developing countries.