Archive for the ‘Viral’ Category

Chikungunya Virus Is Transmitted Across Mosquito Generations

Sunday, July 17th, 2016

Researchers have found that “Aedes aegypti” mosquitoes that transmit the chikungunya virus, pass it on to their offspring- a feature that allows these mosquitoes to maintain the virus within their population for generations.

In other words, mosquitoes emerging from eggs laid by infected Aedes also carry the virus, thus enabling the virus to keep circulating in nature.

A team from the International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (ICGEB), National Institute of Malaria Research and the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) has reported this finding in the reputed journal ‘Acta Tropica.’

“Called transovarian transmission (TOT) or vertical transmission, this is an important feature by which viruses survive in nature until they reach a population large enough to infect human population,” Sujatha Sunil, head of Vector Bourne Diseases Group at ICGEB and principal investigator of the study, told IANS.

In India, chikungunya re-emerged in 2006, after a gap of 32 years and since then it has been occurring either as single infection outbreaks or as co-infections with dengue in different parts of India.

TOT, in which a virus spreads from mosquito to mosquito, is known to occur in the case of yellow fever virus which is also transmitted by A. aegypti mosquitoes.

“However, there have been no reports on TOT of chikungunya virus in field samples till date,” Sujatha said. “The present pilot entomological survey is the first study to confirm this feature in natural population of Aedes mosquitoes.”

In their study, female Aedes mosquitoes collected from the field — that tested positive for the chikungunya virus — were fed uninfected blood in the laboratory and allowed to lay eggs. The progeny that emerged from these eggs were tested and found positive for chikungunya virus, “thus clearly establishing the prevalence of vertical transmission of chikungunya virus in A. aegypti natural populations,” the scientists reported.

Information on vertical transmission of chikungunya virus in natural population of Aedes mosquitoes is important to understand the possible mechanisms of virus survival during inter-epidemic periods, the report said. By confirming the presence of TOT, the “study has provided insights as to the mode by which the chikungunya virus may exist in the population during adverse climatic conditions,” Sujatha said.

For instance, she noted, the pilot survey carried out in Delhi and neighbouring Haryana has revealed that Aedes mosquitoes survive even during peak summer season and their population “explodes quickly once the monsoon starts”.

“Therefore it is very crucial to initiate vector surveillance and control programmes well before the monsoon actually starts,” the scientists said in their report.

They said their study has further demonstrated the importance of identifying permanent breeding sites for proper Aedes species control. “Identification of such sites and timely control of mosquito population in these sites before the onset of monsoon will prove to be extremely important in vector control programmes,” the report said.

But if TOT is taking place in nature, why chikungunya epidemic is not occurring throughout the year?

Sujatha said mosquito population is the deciding factor for disease transmission. “During non-rainy season, the habitats and breeding of the mosquitoes are greatly curbed and the number of mosquitoes is very low. This automatically translates to lesser cases of chikungunya,” Sujatha said.

source :


Sunday, April 28th, 2013

Viral Fever Can Be Harmful For Human Body

Friday, June 22nd, 2012

Simply stated, viral fever is any fever caused by one of the many viral infections or the infections caused by virus. Most of these infections can be identified by the accompanying symptoms and signs. The viral fever symptoms can be generalized but they may target a specific organ of the body.

The external barriers, such as the skin and mucous membranes, are the first line of defense. The body’s immune defenses are triggered when the virus enters the body, and white blood cells (lymphocytes and monocytes) begin to attack and destroy the virus.

This type of general protection is referred to as innate or natural immunity.

Types of Viral Fever

Viruses can affect any part of the body or body system, and can cause infections such as the common cold, flu, gastroenteritis, chicken pox or herpes. The most common type of viral infections involves the respiratory tract.

The common cold is a frequently occurring viral infection and usually includes symptoms such as sneezing, stuffy nose, sore throat and coughing. Although colds are a minor infection of the nose and throat, a cold can last from two days to two weeks. Colds are highly contagious and are spread by fluids from sneezing or coughing, which contain the infection.

Influenza, also known as the “flu”, is a respiratory infection caused by viruses. The flu differs in several ways from the common cold. Symptoms of the flu include body chills, fever, headache, muscle ache and sore throat. Unlike many other viral respiratory infections, the flu can cause severe illness and life-threatening complications in many people. The flu is contracted in the same airborne manner as the common cold. For both cold and flu, the viruses are easily transmitted in highly populated areas.

Remedies To Get Rid Of Viral fever At Home

Thursday, June 21st, 2012

Viral fever is very often in our day to day life. But some times ever viral fever becomes very harmful. So here are some symptoms and remedies for viral fever :

Symptoms Of Viral Fever

1. Fatigue

2. Body as well as muscle aches

3. Low or high fever

4. Inflammation of the pharynx

5. Running nose

6. Nasal congestion

7. Sore throat

8. Headache

9. Redness and burning sensation in eyes

10. Cough

11. Muscle and joint pains

12. Skin rashes

13. Diarrhea

Remedies for Viral Fever

1. Consume good amount of fluids but not milk. However, if having diarrhea avoid taking fruit juices, salad or raw food.

2. Have raw garlic sand onions. You can also use them in cooking, best would be to make soup having lots of garlic and onion.

3. Soak Large Sultanas or Currants (munakkas) overnight and have it in the morning.

4. Mix honey, fresh lemon juice and ginger juice and have it at least twice or thrice a day.

5. Make a concoction by mixing juice of basil leaves (tulsi) ginger juice and honey and have it for treating the symptoms of fever, cough and cold.

6. Gargle with lukewarm water after adding a little salt in it to get relief from sore throat caused by viral fever.

7. Raw tulsi (basil) leaves can be chewed for getting relief from viral fever symptoms.

8. For diarrhea due to viral fever in children, take a pinch full of black pepper powder and mix it in tea and let the kid have few teaspoonful of this.

9. Warm the orange juice a little and have it. It helps in getting rid of body toxins and gives energy to the patient.

10. Have home cooked food- without spices. Always avoid outside food when suffering from viral fever.

Home Remedies for Children

Monday, April 26th, 2010

As a parent, when our children get sick, one of the first things we want to do is to run to the doctor, some people start dosing their children with everything in the medicine cabinet, needless to say ether of the two alternatives y the correct one. Even physicians agree lately that prescribing antibiotics and other drugs is not recommended for children, however doctors sometime feel pressure by the parents to prescribe something even though he knows that the condition will disappear en a few day without drug intervention.

In most children a middle ear infection clears up on its own with in a few months, yet 90% of doctors will prescribe an antibiotic for this condition just to make the parent feel that the visit was time and money well spend.

Most ailments that affect children can be treated with over the counter medicine but many professionals are questioning the long term effects of giving synthetic drugs to a child since a very early age . Besides if the condition is treatable with over the counter drugs, with no doubt herbs can do a better job and by using herbs you get peace of mind knowing that the problem is being taking care of, and that you are boosting his or her immune system without harming your child with side effects. In my case I feel very proud of myself every time my son gets better thanks to some herb preparation I made for him, and it makes me happy to know that I choose to keep my child chemical free as much as I can.

But lets face it, children will run away every time they need to take a medicine made of herbs, and soon you find yourself running around the table trying to catch the patient. There is a better way, herb preparation can be made in a way that children look forward to, by following the steps and instructions in this part of the our website you will learn how to make a sweet tasting cough syrup, a spray for sore throats , a delicious tea for indigestion, or if your baby is allergic to rash prevention products, we’ll show you how to make your own totally natural baby powder, diaper rash cream, and baby oil. For more serious ailments, you’ll learn how to make your own infection fighting antibiotic by mixing the right herbs. Also you’ll find formulas to make laxatives for your child’s constipation and ear drops.

Viral Fever

Tuesday, April 6th, 2010


Viral fever refers to a broad spectrum of conditions where viral infections are associated with elevations of body temperature. The term encompasses a wide variety of viral infections, some of which can be clearly identified by their symptoms and signs. These viral infections may show generalised symptoms, but may target specific organs.

Headaches, body aches and a skin rash characterise most of these viral fevers. They may affect any age group, and are seen world-wide. They require only symptomatic treatment. Some are highly contagious. Most of them are not dangerous and self-limited, but some can progress rapidly leading to death.

Symptoms and Signs

Once the virus enters the body, there is an incubation period when the virus multiplies to a level high enough to cause infection. This is followed by a prodromal phase of fatigue, malaise and body and muscle aches that may lead to the onset of fever. The fever may be low grade or high grade and remittent. Inflammation of the pharynx, a running nose, nasal congestion, headache, redness of the eyes, cough, muscle and joint pains and a skin rash could be present.

The fatigue and body pain could be disproportionate to the level of fever, and lymph glands may swell up. The illness is usually self-limited but the fatigue and cough may persist for a few weeks. Sometimes pneumonia, vomiting and diarrhoea, jaundice or arthritis (joint swelling) may complicate the initial viral fever. Some viral fevers are spread by insects, for example, arbovirus, can cause a bleeding tendency, which results in bleeding from the skin and several other internal organs and can be fatal.

Treatment and Prognosis

Treatment of viral fever is purely symptomatic with antipyretic and analgesic drugs. Bed rest and adequate fluid intake is advised. Nasal decongestants may be beneficial. Specific antiviral therapy is not routinely recommended. Steroids are not advised as it may lead to bacterial super-infection. Only in cases of super-infection do antibiotics need to be prescribed. It is important that antibiotics are NOT routinely used for prophylaxis.

Complications of viral infections like pneumonia (viral or super-infection by bacteria) need to be addressed specifically by clearance of respiratory secretions and utilising ventilator assistance if hypoxia is severe. Symptoms of gastroenteritis should be managed with anti-motility agents. Most viral fevers recover completely in a week although fatigue may persist for a few weeks.


Viral fevers are difficult to prevent. They occur as epidemics of infection depending on their mode of spread. Vaccines have been tried targeting the respiratory and gastrointestinal viruses with little success due to several sub-groups of viruses with different forms of antigenicity, all of which cannot be covered with a single vaccine. Fortunately since most infections are mild and self-limited, we can be assured of a full recovery.