A urinary tract infection (UTI) is a bacterial infection that affects any part of the urinary tract. Although urine contains a variety of fluids, salts, and waste products, it usually does not have bacteria in it. When bacteria get into the bladder or kidney and multiply in the urine, they cause a UTI. The most common type of UTI is a bladder infection which is also often called cystitis. Another kind of UTI is a kidney infection, known as pyelonephritis, and is much more serious.
UTIs are most common in sexually active women and increase in diabetics and people with sickle-cell disease or anatomical malformations of the urinary tract.
Since bacteria can enter the urinary tract through the urethra (an ascending infection), poor toilet habits can predispose to infection, but other factors (pregnancy in women, prostate enlargement in men) are also important and in many cases the initiating event is unclear.
A urinary tract infection, or UTI, is an infection that can happen anywhere along the urinary tract. The urinary tract includes the:
• Ureters – the tubes that take urine from each kidney to the bladder.
• Urethra – the tube that empties urine from the bladder to the outside.
Cause of UTI
· E. coli.
· Female sex.
· Enlarged prostate.
· Neuropathic bladder.
· Urinary tract calculi.
· Polycystic kidney disease.
· Diabetes mellitus.
· Vesico-ureteric reflex.
· Bladder catheterisation.
Mal treated Acute UTI
- Urinary obstruction
- Enlarged prostate.
- Stasis in bladder
- Neurogenic bladder.
- Vesico-ureteric reflux.
- Polycystic kidney disease.
- Diabetes mellitus.
Symptoms of Bladder Infection
• Frequent urination along with the feeling of having to urinate even though there may be very little urine to pass.
• Nocturia: Need to urinate during the night.
• Urethritis: Discomfort or pain at the urethral meatus or a burning sensation throughout the urethra with urination (dysuria).
• Pain in the midline suprapubic region.
• Pyuria: Pus in the urine or discharge from the urethra.
• Hematuria: Blood in urine.
• Pyrexia: Mild fever
• Cloudy and foul-smelling urine
• Increased confusion and associated falls are common presentations to Emergency Departments for elderly patients with UTI.
• Some urinary tract infections are asymptomatic.
• Protein found in the urine. Cloudy urine
• Foul or strong urine odor
• Frequent or urgent need to urinate
• Low fever (not everyone will have a fever)
• Need to urinate at night
• Pain or burning with urination
• Painful sexual intercourse
• Pressure in the lower pelvis
Symptoms of Kidney Infection
• All of the above symptoms.
• Emesis: Vomiting is common.
• Back, side (flank) or groin pain.
• Abdominal pain or pressure.
• Shaking chills and high spiking fever.
• Night sweats.
• Extreme fatigue. Chills and shaking
• Fever above 102 degrees Fahrenheit, which lasts for more than 2 days
• Flank (side) pain
• Flushed, warm, or reddened skin
• General ill feeling
• Mental changes or confusion (in the elderly, these symptoms often are the only signs of an UTI)
• Nausea and vomiting
• Severe abdominal pain (sometimes)
PREVENTION of UTI
- Drink plenty of liquids to flush bacteria out of the urinary system.
- Wipe from the vagina to the anus after defecation to avoid spreading bacteria.
- Drink water before and after sex so that one will urinate a good volume with a steady stream afterwards. This will help eliminate any bacteria that may have entered.
- Consider using another method of birth control or a different brand of condom for your spouse if you suspect that chemical over the condom is causing irritation.
- Avoid tight clothing. It may irritate tissues, trap heat, and promote bacterial growth.
- Wear cotton underwear. Cotton is less irritating and provides more ventilation than nylon.